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2018年6月23日雅思阅读考试预测生活的不确定性

上海朗阁Jason时间:2018-06-05 13:36


  .雅思考试中阅读部分占有一定的比率,想要快速的提升自己的阅读成绩,平时可以适当的看些美剧和英文杂志等,当然了选择阅读英文杂志要有选择性的看自己比较感兴趣的,不能盲目的什么都看,下面上海朗阁教育小编整理了2018年6月23日雅思阅读考试预测生活的不确定性的相关内容,供各位同学们和考生们参考,希望能够帮助到大家,更多的雅思阅读方面的信息请关注上海朗阁

2018年6月23日雅思阅读考试预测生活的不确定性

  文章题目 Living with uncertainty生活的不确定性

  重复年份 20160109A 20140515

  题材 自然环境

  题型 判断 7+简答 6

  文章大意

  澳洲的气候变化无常,所以那里的生物需要很强的应变能力。有一种鸟可以知道什么地方什么时候下雨,可以提前飞去找水喝。当地人为了狩猎把森林烧掉,另一种要吃 salt bush 的鸟就因此灭绝了。欧洲人来了之后大量种植 wheat,Emu 喜欢吃,所以繁殖很快。

  部分答案参考:

  判断:

  第一种鸟避开下雨的地方。

  简答:

  1.Aboriginal 做了什么来方便他们打猎 lit fire

  2. G 鸟灭绝的原因:salt bush

  3. Emu 吃 wheat

  文章题目 Trade

  重复年份 20160109B 20120728

  题材 发展史

  题型 暂无

  文章大意

  贸易的发展史,讲了贸易的人的天性以及各地的贸易发展水平和状况。

  英文原文:

  Basically trade means exchange of goods, services, or both. Trade is also called commerce. The actual face of trade was barter, which was the direct exchange of goods and services. Today traders generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, like money, which then makes buying separate from selling, or earning. The invention of money has made trade simpler. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade between more than two traders is called

  multilateral trade. Trade exists for many reasons. It can be due to specialization and division of labor.

  Trade exists between regions because different regions have a comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different

  regions' size helps getting benefits of mass production.

  History of Trade:

  Trade originated in prehistoric times. It was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other when modern money was never even thought of. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.

  Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history. Materials used for the creation of jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BC. Long-distance trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BC, by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia when they traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. Trading is greatly important to the global economy. From the very beginning of Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, a financially worthwhile trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the

  Far East, including China.

  The fall of the Roman Empire, and the succeeding Dark Ages brought insecurity to Western Europe and a near end of the trade network. However some trade did occur, the Radhanites were a medieval group of Jewish merchants who traded between the Christians in Europe and the Muslims of the Near East.

  The Sogdians ruled the East-West trade route known as the Silk Road from the end 4th century AD to the 8th century AD.

  The Vikings and Varangians also traded from the 8th to the 11th century as they sailed from and to Scandinavia. Vikings sailed to Western Europe, while

  Varangians to Russia.

  Vasco da Gama restarted the European Spice trade in 1498. Earlier to his sailing around Africa, the flow of spice into Europe was controlled by Islamic powers, especially Egypt. The spice trade was of major economic importance and helped encourage the Age of Exploration. Spices brought to Europe from distant lands were some of the most valuable commodities for their weight, sometimes rivaling gold.

  In the 16th century, Holland was the centre of free trade, imposing no exchange controls, and advocating the free movement of goods.

  In 1776, Adam Smith published the paper "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations". This paper criticized Mercantilism, and argued that economic specialization could benefit nations just as much as firms. Since that time the division of labor was restricted by the size of the market, he said that countries having access to larger markets would be able to divide labor more efficiently and thereby become more productive.

  The Great Depression was a major economic collapse that ran from 1929 to the late 1930s. There was a great setback in trade and other economic indicators during this period.

  The lack of free trade was considered by many as a root cause of the depression. Only during the World War II the recession ended in United States.

  中文翻译:

  基本上,贸易意味着货物、服务或两者的交换。贸易也被称为商业。贸易的实际面貌是易货贸易,这是货物和服务的直接交换。今天,交易者通常通过一种媒介进行谈判,比如货币,然后使购买与销售分开,或者赚取收入。货币的发明使贸易变得更简单了。两个商人之间的贸易叫做双边贸易,而两个以上的商人之间的贸易叫做“双边贸易”。

  多边贸易。贸易存在的原因很多。这可能是由于专业化和分工造成的。

  贸易存在于地区之间,因为不同地区在某种贸易商品的生产中具有比较优势,或者因为不同的地区。

  地区的规模有助于获得大规模生产的好处。

  贸易史:

  贸易起源于史前时期。它是史前人类的主要设施,当现代货币从未被考虑过时,他们互相交换货物和服务。P·维特森与150000年前的远距离商业史相提并论。

  贸易被认为是在整个人类历史记录中发生的。自公元前3000年以来,用于制造珠宝的材料与埃及进行了交易。长途贸易路线最初出现在公元前第三年,当时苏美尔人在美索不达米亚与印度河流域的哈拉帕文明进行贸易。贸易对全球经济非常重要。从希腊文明的开始到五世纪罗马帝国的灭亡,一个经济上有价值的贸易从欧洲带来了有价值的调味品。

  远东,包括中国。

  罗马帝国的衰落和随后的黑暗时代给欧洲西部带来了不安全感,同时也使贸易网络濒临终结。然而,一些贸易确实发生了,拉德内特是一个中世纪的犹太商人团体,他们在欧洲的基督徒和近东的穆斯林之间进行交易。

  苏格底人统治着从公元四世纪到八世纪的丝绸之路的东西方贸易路线。

  北欧海盗和瓦尔干亚人也从第八到十一世纪从他们航行到斯堪的纳维亚。Vikings航行到西欧,而

  俄罗斯的瓦尔干安人

  瓦斯科·达·伽马在1498重新开始了欧洲香料贸易。早在他绕非洲航行时,香料流入欧洲是由伊斯兰大国控制的,尤其是埃及。香料贸易具有重大的经济意义,并有助于鼓励探索的时代。从遥远的地方带来的香料是欧洲最有价值的商品,有时与黄金媲美。

  在十六世纪,荷兰是自由贸易的中心,不实行外汇管制,提倡货物自由流动。

  1776,亚当·斯密发表了《关于国家财富的性质和原因的调查》的论文。本文批评重商主义,认为经济专业化可以像企业一样有益于国家。从那时起,劳动分工受到市场规模的限制,他说,拥有更大市场的国家能够更有效地分工,从而提高生产率。

  大萧条是从1929到1930年代末的一次重大经济崩溃,在此期间贸易和其他经济指标出现了巨大的挫折。

  许多人认为缺乏自由贸易是导致经济萧条的根本原因。只有在二战期间,美国经济衰退才告结束。

  以上就是上海朗阁教育收集整理的2018年6月23日雅思阅读考试预测生活的不确定性相关信息,雅思考试中阅读成绩会直接影响雅思考试总成绩,一定要谨慎对待,更多关于雅思阅读方面的信息,请关注上海朗阁教育。


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