主页 > 雅思考试 > 雅思常识 >

什么是被动语态

朗阁教育Jason时间:2018-03-05 16:12


  被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成,被动语态的时态变化只改变be的形式,过去分词部分不变,那么究竟什么是被动语态呢,一起跟小编来看看吧。

  什么是被动语态

  被动语态(passive voice)是动词的一种形式,用以说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。英语的语态共有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般来说,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。在英语中,被动语态使用得比汉语要多,要普遍,但大多数句子都使用主动语态。被动语态在英语中极为重要。许多课本及考试乃至实际应用中都常常涉及到这个问题。一般说来,当强调动作承受者,不必说出执行者或含糊不清的执行者时,多用被动语态。需要注意的是,许多地方与汉语不同。

  主动语态变被动语态时,主动语态句中的宾语变成被动语态句中的主语,主动语态句中的主语成为被动语态句中的动作的执行者。

  被动语态的构成

  (1)助动词be+及物动词的过去分词、(2)情态动词+be+及物动词的过去分词。

  肯定式否定式疑问式

  一般现在时I am asked..He/she is asked...We/you/they are asked...I am not asked...He/She is not asked...We/you/they are not asked...Am I asked...?Is he/she asked...?Are we/you/they asked...?

  一般过去时I was asked...He/She was asked ...We/you/they were asked...I was not asked...He/Shewas not asked...We/you/they were not askedWas I asked...?Was he/she asked...?Were we/you/they asked...?

  一般现在时、一般过去时用be +及物动词的.过去分词,be有人称、时、数变。完成时态have(has)done,被动将been加中间。一般将来shall(will)do,被动变do为be done。将来进行无被动,shall(will)be doing。现在完成时,被动 have(has)been done。现、过进行be doing,被动be加being done。情、助、有、是妥安排,一律随新主语变。否定助后加not,疑问一助置主前。主语恰是疑问词,直陈语序主在前。一般情助加be done,双宾多将间宾变。复合宾语宾变主,宾补、主补相应变。第二句“be有人称、时、数变”即be有人称、时态和单、复数的变化。“情助”是指情态动词和助动词“must,may,can,shall,will”等一律随新主语(多是主动句中的宾语)来变化。“疑问一助置主前”是说有两个助动词的话,应把主语放在第一助动词之后或把第一助动词置于主语之前。

  被动语态的用法

  一般用法

  一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are +及物动词的过去分词Our classroom is cleaned everyday.I am asked to study hard by my mother.Knives are used for cutting things.2.一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词The new shop was built last year.Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.3.现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been +及物动词的过去分词This book has been translated into many languages.Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.4.一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词A new hospital will be built in our city.Many more trees will be planted next year.5.含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词Young trees must be watered often.Your mistakes should be corrected right now.The door may be locked inside.Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.

  特殊用法

  不及物动词无被动语态。 如:happen, break down, come out......What will happen in 100 years.The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.2.有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: write, sell, ride.....This pen writes well.This new book sells well.3.感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do somethingsee somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do somethingA girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.4.如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.5.一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.构成

  以上就是上海朗阁教育小编整理的什么是被动语态,被动语的态构成被动语态的用法等相关知识,希望能够帮助到各位烤鸭们,同时也希望各位考生能考出好成绩。


关键词:

相关推荐


本文链接地址:wwww.shlongre.org/ielts/13387.html转载请注明来源



关于我们联系我们网站地图隐私声明

上海朗阁教育培训有限公司-www.shlongre.org:上海市淮海中路725号新华联大厦新楼7楼

沪ICP备17002243号   Copyright 2016-2018 Shlongre. All Rights Reserved.

  • 朗阁高分教室

    朗阁高分教室

  • 出国考试WE社区

    出国考试WE社区